In 1959, for the first time, a large-scale exhibition of the USA was held in Moscow, in modern terms, a presentation of new world-class information technologies, especially cars impressed Soviet people: Cadillac, Lincoln, Ford, Chrysler.
Some samples of electronic technology were not accessible to our understanding, then they were presented by Soviet ideologists as surpluses of bourgeois society. At the American exhibition in Sokolniki, US Vice President Richard Nixon tried to demonstrate to Khrushchev the achievements of American video technology, color televisions, showed a modern kitchen with household appliances, the existence of which Soviet people did not even suspect, but the communist leader, who was poorly educated, could not properly assess these achievements and prospects. On the contrary, he had plans to create an iron curtain and a desire to show the Americans the “Kuzkin mother”. And soon the Berlin Wall was built. If then the globalists from the leadership of the Soviet Union would have known the prospects of the scientific and technological revolution, they would have understood that bricks and concrete cannot create a barrier to the communication of peoples. Perhaps then the expression “but we make rockets” was born.
In the same years, the Kyrgyz SSR was on the rise in all spheres of economy and culture. Even in 1957, she was awarded the Order of Lenin for the first time, such an award was not awarded to every Republic, there were real achievements in the development of the national economy. Under the leadership of Iskhak Razzakov, all this enormous economic work was carried out by Gosplan, which during these years was headed by B.D.Dyushaliev. Prior to that, he worked as Minister of Fuel Industry (Energy), Minister of Building Materials Industry and Local Industry. As can be seen, B.D.Dyushaliev, a participant in the Battle of Stalingrad, a deputy of the Supreme Soviet was not the Minister of Light Industry, and in some sources, instead of the fuel industry, light industry is “mistakenly” recorded. This is an important addition, because charges were fabricated against him and repressed precisely in the knitting case of the Ministry of Light Industry.
As it turned out, Khrushchev’s new cult of personality, on the contrary, did not like such an active work of the Republic’s leadership. At the congresses in Moscow, he repeatedly interrupted Razzakov’s report with questions, but the audience greeted Razzakov’s answer with applause. Khrushchev clapped along with everyone, realizing that he had once again got into a mess. That is, Razzakov showed his broad outlook, knowledge of the real leader of the country. In his speeches, he raised acute questions, openly made comments not on the actions of the USSR government, was not afraid to defend the interests of Kyrgyzstan.
Here are excerpts from speeches at the plenum of the Supreme Council and
materials of party congresses (1955-1959)
It is planned to increase the production of gross output by 1965 compared to 1958 by 2.2 times.
For the further industrial development of Kyrgyzstan, the construction and commissioning of such large facilities of national importance as the Uch-Kurgan hydroelectric power plant and the Frunze thermal power plant, the Kant Chemical Plant, worsted cloth and cotton mills and a number of other large enterprises of heavy and light industry are of great importance. Oil and natural gas production will be sharply increased.
At the same time, according to the decision of the X Congress of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan, we ask the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Government of the Union to consider the issue and give us the opportunity to start the development of the Kara-Kechinsky coal deposit and the construction of the Frunze—Chu station railway in the current seven years. These facilities are vital for the further economic recovery of the republic.
The Kara-Kechinskoye field has reserves of more than two billion tons of coal. Coal production by 1965 can be increased to three million tons per year, and coal will be mined in an open, that is, the most economical way. The deposit is located from the mountains. Frunze is 354 kilometers away. Calculations show that the costs of developing the Kara-Kechinskoye field will pay off within 5-7 years.
In the interests of further economic development, improvement of inter—district economic ties of the republic, we propose to consider the construction of the Frunze railway — Chu station of the Kazakh Railway, which will connect an important industrial area – the mountains. Frunze with the main lines of the whole country.
In the draft seven-year plan, investments in the development of the national economy of the republic will amount to 10.5 billion rubles, will be equal to the investments of the four previous five-year plans. As you can see, the growth is enormous, we have not built on such a scale before.
The management is aware of and understands all responsibility for the full and timely implementation of capital construction plans and commissioning of new facilities. And we will do everything necessary to significantly improve the construction management and ensure the implementation of these plans.
For such republics and regions as Kyrgyzstan, supply issues become particularly important and sometimes take on an acute character. So, for example, funds were allocated for 1958: forests — 85.5 thousand cubic meters, 60.7 thousand cubic meters were actually delivered, 70 percent; cement — 110 thousand tons were delivered with the need for 154. The needs for metal, slate and other materials are also far from being fully met.
Kyrgyzstan has achieved overcoming the long lag of the republic’s agriculture. Over the past five years, the production of agricultural and livestock products has increased significantly by 48.6 percent, sugar beet — 2.4 times, vegetables — 2 times, milk — almost 2 times, wool more than 2 times.
It is planned to increase in 1965, compared with 1957, the production of sugar beet and cotton by 1.3—1.4 times, grain by 2-2.5 times, meat by about 3 times, milk by 2.6 times, wool by almost 3 times, silkworm cocoons by 3 times
Anyway, the construction of large industrial and cultural facilities for public consumption has begun in Kyrgyzstan. By the end of 1961, a cement-slate plant was built in Kant, Frunzenskaya CHP, a radio broadcasting television center and a television tower in Frunze, Uch-Kurgan HPP, dozens of the largest light and food industry enterprises, the Frunze-Osh road, universities, cinemas and other facilities that still work for the benefit of the Kyrgyz people. This was also reported by Deputy of the Supreme Council of the Republic, Chairman of the State Planning Committee of the Kyrgyz SSR Dyushaliev B.D. during 10 years of work as a minister. He stressed that the construction of all large facilities in the Kyrgyz Republic counts its own budget, savings and profits from the work of industry. Against this background, the Chairman of the State Planning Committee Dyushaliev planned to produce 1.5 million tons of oil, 2 billion cubic meters of gas, and 7.2 million tons of coal per year. According to his plan, the Kyrgyz economy not only provided itself, but also exported goods to other countries, and by 1977 would have provided the entire population with their own housing. By the way, he did not plan the construction of the Kempirabad dam. Thanks to the development of its own economy, Kyrgyzstan began to provide itself with energy resources, consumer goods, food, etc., i.e. then we began to pursue an economic policy of self-sufficiency. This was economically justified, because then, as a result of the Cold War, the Soviet Union was isolated. Even scarce knitwear could not be purchased abroad as dual-use products.
Such decisions, and most importantly their successful implementation, were regarded by the Central Committee of the CPSU as the desire to be the first to build “communism”. And in October 1958, a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU was adopted in which I.Razzakov and the leadership of the republic as a whole were subjected to unfounded criticism and threats, namely B.Dyushaliev – Chairman of the State Planning Committee, A.Kazakbayev-Secretary of the Central Committee of the CP on ideology, M.Abdykulov -first secretary of the Osh Regional Party Committee. It was not officially mentioned, but the desire to punish the leadership of Kyrgyzstan was influenced by the adoption in the same 1958 of the law on the introduction of the study of the Kyrgyz language in Russian schools. This is evidenced by the fact that immediately after the removal of I. Razzakov and the arrest of Dyushaliev in 1961, the new first secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Kyrgyzstan canceled the study of the native language for Kyrgyz as a school subject in Russian schools in Bishkek.
With the help of repression with the complicity of puppets and sycophants, Khrushchev wanted to strengthen his hegemonism and personality cult, but it turned out the opposite.
By 1962, discontent with Nikita Khrushchev had become universal. Officers hated him for reducing the army, peasants — for corn, workers — for rising prices, liberals — for rudeness at meetings with the intelligentsia, Stalinists — for debunking the cult of their idol. The head of the country talked too much.
The Caribbean crisis has just ended. Khrushchev almost provoked a nuclear war, they explained to him that everyone would die in a nuclear war, including the party leadership. Nikolai Ignatov, shortly before being expelled by Khrushchev from the presidium of the Central Committee, dreamed of revenge. Fyodor Kulakov, one of the most influential peripheral bosses, did not like Khrushchev and hoped for a career under the new leadership.
The participants of the “Kislovodsk conspiracy” soon, observing all possible secrecy, talked with possible allies. There were a lot of them. Key — secretaries of the Central Committee Nikolai Podgorny, Alexander Shelepin (he was Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers), Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Council Leonid Brezhnev and Chairman of the KGB Vladimir Semichastny.
But the majority of the top of the Central Committee was afraid to get down to business. Nikita Khrushchev was a vindictive, cunning and cruel man. It was he who initiated the arrest and execution of Dyushaliev and the removal of I. Razzakov. Khrushchev survived in 1957, when the majority of the Presidium of the Central Committee turned against him. Soon all of them were removed from their posts and expelled — Molotov, Malenkov, Kaganovich, Shepilov, Bulganin, Pervukhin, Saburov. And then Nikita Sergeyevich also removed those who helped him in the confrontation: Zhukov, Ignatov, Furtseva, Kirichenko, Mukhitdinov, Aristov.
Khrushchev learned the art of personnel revolutions from Stalin. Only he shot, and Khrushchev sent to the periphery. If he suspects anyone of a conspiracy, everything will fail. After all, next to Khrushchev was his semi—official successor – the second secretary of the Central Committee, Frol Kozlov, who was about to take the post of first secretary.
Before the adoption of the USSR Law on state security bodies, the Regulation on the State Security Committee under the Council of Ministers of the USSR and its local bodies of January 9, 1959, approved by the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU, continued to operate. It emphasized that the KGB bodies are political, carry out the activities of the Central Committee of the CPSU and work under its direct supervision, KGB executives are part of the party nomenclature, orders of the chairman of the KGB are issued with the approval of the Central Committee of the CPSU.
“For the population of the USSR, Khrushchev’s victory meant entering a turbulent period. The corn campaign, the “catching up” of America, the construction of communism in 1980, the Caribbean crisis and queues for bread, which urgently needed to be purchased in the same States, as a result.”
The ideological orientation “building communism in 1980” was proclaimed in October 1961 at the XXII Congress of the CPSU, but it was no longer taken seriously in 1963, when the USSR began to buy grain abroad for the first time in the entire thousand-year Russian history.
© Stalik Dyushaliev [Kyrgyzstan (Bishkek) ]